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Altzheimer's Association
Health Care Professionals and Alzheimer's | hcps
Altzheimer's Association


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Cognitive Assessment

AWV Algorithm

This section provides guidance and tools for conducting a cognitive assessment during a time-limited office visit. Detecting possible cognitive impairment is the first step in determining whether or not a patient needs further evaluation.

On this page:

Who should be evaluated for cognitive impairment?

Benefits of early detection for your patients

  • A better chance of benefiting from treatment
  • More time to plan for the future
  • Lessened anxieties about unknown problems
  • Increased chances of participating in clinical drug trials, helping advance research
  • An opportunity to participate in decisions about care, transportation, living options, financial and legal matters
  • Time to develop a relationship with doctors and care partners
  • Benefit from care and support serv ices, making it easier for them and their family to manage the disease

  • Individuals with memory concerns or other cognitive complaints. Non-memory triggers include personality change, depression, deterioration of chronic disease without explanation, and falls or balance issues

  • Informant reports of cognitive impairment, with or without patient concurrence

  • Medicare beneficiaries, as part of the Annual Wellness Visit

Medicare Annual Wellness Visit

The Medicare Annual Wellness visit was initiated in January 2011 as part of the Affordable Care Act. The yearly Medicare benefit includes the creation of a personalized prevention plan and detection of possible cognitive impairment.

The Alzheimer's Association convened a group of practicing expert clinicians to make consensus recommendations for an effective, practical and easy process for detecting cognitive impairment in the primary care setting.

The resulting algorithm incorporates patient history, clinician observations, and concerns expressed by the patient, family or caregiver. Because the use of a cognitive assessment instrument can improve detection of dementia in primary care settings,1 the group identified several brief tools to evaluate cognition, all which can be administered in five minutes or less by a physician or other trained staff.

Recommended cognitive assessment tools

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New Alzheimer's Disease Pocketcard app puts reliable information and assessment tools at your fingertips.

These cognitive assessment tools are used to identify individuals who may need additional evaluation. No one tool is recognized as the best brief assessment to determine if a full dementia evaluation is needed. However, the expert workgroup identified several instruments suited for use in primary care based on the following: administration time ≤5 minutes, validation in a primary care or community setting, psychometric equivalence or superiority to the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), easy administration by non-physician staff and relatively free of educational, language and/or cultural bias. For a definitive diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia, individuals who fail any of these tests should be evaluated further or referred to a specialist.

Patient assessment tools:

  • General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) – Available in multiple languages

Informant tools (family members and close friends):


Instructional videos

The following videos show a brief cognitive assessment and a peer-to-peer discussion of important aspects of assessing cognition and disclosing an Alzheimer's disease diagnosis during a primary care visit. The videos, part of a three-part instructional series developed for primary care providers, use an actual primary care physician and patient with Alzheimer's disease.

Assessing cognition and recommending follow-up (approx. 7 min.)

Peer-to-peer discussion of important aspects of assessing cognition and disclosing Alzheimer's disease during primary care visits (approx. 11 min.)

Videos produced by the American College of Physicians Foundation and the Alzheimer's Association.

Indications for referral

Not all primary care physicians will want to conduct a full dementia evaluation. Possible indications for referral to a neurologist, neuropsychologist or geriatrician include:

  • Inconclusive diagnosis
  • Atypical presentation
  • Behavioral/psychiatric symptoms
  • Younger-onset (< 65 years)
  • Second opinion
  • Patient/family preference
  • Family dispute
  • Caregiver support


1Borson S, Scanlan JM,Watanabe J, Tu S-P, Lessig M. "Improving Identification of Cognitive Impairment in Primary Care." Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;21:349–55.

For Your Patients

24/7 Helpline 800.272.3900 — We can help your patients and their caregivers with questions and local support resources.

Message boards — Our online support community for people living with dementia and caregivers.

Caregiver Center — Information and planning tools for families.


Alzheimer's Association

Our vision: A world without Alzheimer's disease®.
Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association is the leading voluntary health organization in Alzheimer's care, support and research.